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L0phtCrack Password Auditor Enterprise is a powerful program to check and crack the password, there are many advanced functions and professional. The software integrates powerful features such as scheduling, extract hash according version Windows 64-bit, algorithms, multi-processor, and the monitoring and decoding network.
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Once the hashes a cracking run will begin. One thing you will learn about hash cracking is that one attempt is generally never enough. You will want to try a range of approaches to wordlist generation and mangling/character substitution.
Bitcracker performs a dictionary attack, so you still need to create a list of possible recovery keys. And you should be careful with creating such kind of list because there are special conditions for recovery key (look through this paper, chapter 5.4, for details or Microsoft documentation).
You simply can't get a full password report because Windows XP, Windows 2000, and Windows NT use hash algorithms to protect passwords stored in the SAM or Active Directory (AD). Therefore, you need a password-cracking tool such as @stake's L0phtCrack. The latest incarnation of the famous L0phtCrack tool, LC3, lets you import the password hashes from AD on a Win2K domain controller (DC) or from an NT DC's SAM. (To learn more about password hashing, see "Cracking User Passwords in Windows 2000," , InstantDoc ID 9186.) You can then subject those hashed passwords to a variety of cracking techniques to reveal weaknesses.
Run LC3 on a Test Machine Because LC3 uses undocumented APIs and DLL injection, which can be unstable, you might not want to install LC3 on a production DC. In that case, you'll need to install Win2K or NT (whichever is appropriate) on a test machine. Make the computer a DC in your domain, which will create a copy of the domain's SAM or AD database on the scratch computer. Download LC3 and unplug the computer from the network. Run l0phtcracksetup02.exe, accept all the defaults, and cancel the Password Crack Wizard. Now, in the unlikely case that LC3 crashes or corrupts your computer, you won't affect your network.
After LC3 starts cracking, the only difference between the two columns is that the LM password is simply an all-uppercase version of the usual mixed-case NTLM password. Because of one vulnerability in NTLM hashing, LC3 can immediately identify passwords that are fewer than eight characters long and display them in the
Select a Cracking Scheme After you have your password hashes, you can configure the cracking methods LC3 will use against your domain. To view your choices, select Session, Session Options in the LC3 interface. Figure 2 shows the default session options settings. You can use four kinds of cracks in your password audit.
The first crack LC3 attempts is simply the username for those users who've used their names as their password. (Because this crack is so fast, Figure 2 doesn't show it as an option.) The second option is the Dictionary Crack, in which LC3 hashes each word in a specified word-list file and compares it with the hashes you obtained. (To import a custom word-list file for a dictionary attack, select Session, Options, then choose a different word-list file.) LC3 can process even a large word-list file in a matter of minutes, so the dictionary attack quickly identifies any users who are using a simple word as their password. The third option is the Brute Hybrid Crack. During the hybrid crack, LC3 processes the word-list file again, but adds one to three numbers or symbols to the end of the word. The hybrid attack gleans passwords such as password! or Clemens22. Finally, LC3 subjects any remaining passwords to a Brute Force Crack that uses every possible combination of characters.
To run your first crack, click OK in the Auditing Options For This Session dialog box, then select Session, Begin Audit. LC3 proceeds through the different types of cracks, as Web Figure 1 shows. (To view this figure, go to and enter InstantDoc ID 24052.) During the dictionary and hybrid attacks, you can see how far along LC3 is by looking under Dictionary Status in the interface's right pane. During brute-force cracks, LC3 displays its progress statistics under Brute Force in the right pane. As LC3 completes each password-cracking approach, LC3 checks off that type with a red check mark in the interface's bottom right corner. Whenever LC3 cracks a password, it displays the amount of time it took in the Audit Time column and displays the password in the LM Password and NTLM Password columns.
Occasionally, you'll see the last portion of a password preceded by seven question marks, such as the SavvyUser's password, which Web Figure 1 shows. Passwords can be up to 14 characters long. Because of vulnerabilities in the LM hash algorithm, LC3 can work on the first and second sets of seven characters independently. LC3 often cracks the last seven characters of a password before the first seven, which is important because those characters might offer a clue to the beginning portion of the password.
You should know about some important caveats with the hybrid attack. The hybrid attack appends only numbers and symbols to the end of passwords, not letters. Therefore, you miss passwords such as jets even though "jet" is in the word list. The hybrid attack tries only combinations of the full length specified. As Figure 2 shows, the default length is 2, which means that a default crack will miss passwords composed of a word followed by just one letter or symbol (e.g., John1). Therefore, change the Characters to vary (more is slower) setting to 1 in the Auditing Options For This Session dialog box, then run LC3 again.
The brute-force attack takes anywhere from hours to days depending on the character set you use. You can select from letters; letters and numbers; letters, numbers, and the symbols on the top row of your keyboard; or letters, numbers, and all symbols on a typical keyboard. Even the largest character set doesn't guarantee that LC3 will crack every password, because users can use the Alt key and the numeric keypad to enter the ASCII code of other characters. LC3's default character sets don't include these extended characters. (For more information about making your password-cracking sessions as efficient as possible, see the Web-exclusive sidebar "LC3's Power Features," , InstantDoc ID 23945.)
To create a custom character set, open the Auditing Options For This Session dialog box, select Custom from the Character Set drop-down list, then enter all the characters you want to use in the drop-down list in order from lowest to highest (in terms of their ASCII numbers). Custom character sets also let you implement a more limited character set than those LC3 provides. The smaller the character set is, the less time a complete session will take. If you need to reboot your computer before LC3 finishes a cracking session, you can pause the audit by selecting Session, Pause Audit in the interface, then save the data to a disk. The session file will have an .lcs extension. To restart LC3, open the session file and select Session, Begin Audit in the interface.
Get Useful Results When you use LC3, remember that you're performing an audit of password strength; you aren't cracking passwords to see whether it can be done. Given enough time, LC3 will crack any password. Therefore, when you choose which auditing options to include in your formal audit, it would be unfair to your users to use a crack method that's stronger than your published password policy.
Here's one way you might consider your password-strength audit. Always run a dictionary attack with the supplied words-english file. (You might also use another language word list if appropriate.) Next, I recommend running a hybrid crack with Characters to vary set to 1 and possibly another hybrid crack that involves two characters. Decide whether to include a brute-force crack. If your organization has specific password requirements that call for a certain variety of characters, such as letters and numbers, you can select a weaker character set such as just A through Z to find noncompliant passwords. (If passwords are supposed to include at least one letter and one number, any passwords cracked with A through Z are obviously out of compliance.)
In the meantime, *nix password hashes became more complex, flexible, and harder to crack. There are multiple formats currently available for Linux passwords. Here is an example password hash from a fairly modern Linux install:
Besides contests, even malware was using password cracking as a means to spread. On November 2, 1988, the Morris Worm started to spread across the Internet. Remember the previously mentioned co-author of the paper I keep mentioning, Robert Morris? This worm was created by his son, Robert Tappan Morris (chip off the old cipher block), as an experiment in replicating code. RTM created a worm that attempted multiple avenues to propagate itself, including trying to crack crypt(3) passwords as one vector to spread.
released build was just for DOS and meant for cracking *nix passwords but John has since been ported to many platforms and supports a ton of password hash types. Solar Designer also did a talk at the Passwords12 conference which was a major resource for this article and my own upcoming presentation.
Earlier, *nix passwords were stored in /etc/passwd, which anyone on the system could read from, therefore anyone could get to the hashes. To solve this, the shadow password file was created to limit access to the hashes. Shadow passwords were first implemented in System V release 3.2 in 1988, but did not really take off immediately. I assume shadow files really took off in the late 90s because of the proliferation on *nix password crackers, but others have attributed it to just being part of *nix standardization projects.