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Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D



Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D: A Non-Polemical Study of Religious and Philosophical Sects in Islam




If you are interested in learning about the diversity of beliefs and opinions in Islamic history, you may want to read Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D. This is a book written by the Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Shahrastani (d. 1153 CE), who was considered to be the first systematic study of religion. In this book, he presents a non-polemical and objective account of various religious and philosophical sects that had existed up to his time, both within and outside Islam. He also provides a critique of their doctrines and arguments, based on reason and scripture. In this article, we will give you an overview of Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D, its author, its contents, and its significance.




Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D



Who is Muhammad al-Shahrastani?




Muhammad al-Shahrastani was born in 1086 CE in Shahrastan, a town in Khurasan (present-day Iran). He belonged to the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence and the Ash'ari school of theology. He was a prolific writer and a renowned scholar, who mastered various disciplines such as Quranic exegesis, Hadith, jurisprudence, theology, philosophy, history, and comparative religion. He traveled widely and studied with many eminent teachers in Baghdad, Nishapur, Merv, Rayy, Isfahan, and other places. He also participated in several debates and dialogues with representatives of different sects and religions. He died in 1153 CE in Khwarezm (present-day Uzbekistan).


What is Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal?




Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal (Arabic: كتاب الملل والنحل) means The Book of Sects and Creeds. It is also known as Al-Fisal fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa' wa al-Nihal (Arabic: الفصل في الملل والأهواء والنحل), which means The Decisive Treatise on Sects, Heresies, and Creeds. It is one of the most famous and influential works of Muhammad al-Shahrastani, and one of the earliest and most comprehensive studies of comparative religion in Islamic literature.


The book consists of two volumes, each divided into several chapters. The first volume deals with the sects and creeds within Islam, such as the Sunnis, the Shi'is, the Kharijites, the Mu'tazilites, the Murji'ites, the Sufis, and others. The second volume deals with the sects and creeds outside Islam, such as the Jews, the Christians, the Zoroastrians, the Sabians, the Manicheans, the Buddhists, the Hindus, and others.


The book follows a systematic and logical method of presentation. For each sect or creed, al-Shahrastani gives a brief introduction about its origin, founder, name, and main features. Then he describes its doctrines and beliefs in detail, quoting from its sources and authorities. He also mentions its subdivisions and branches if any. After that, he evaluates its doctrines and beliefs from an Islamic perspective, using rational arguments and scriptural evidences. He points out its strengths and weaknesses, its merits and demerits, its truths and falsehoods. He also compares and contrasts it with other sects or creeds that are similar or different from it.


What is the Significance of Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal?




Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal is a significant work for several reasons. First of all, it is a valuable source of information about the history and development of various religious and philosophical sects that had existed up to the 12th century CE. It provides a comprehensive overview of their doctrines and beliefs, their sources and authorities, their similarities and differences. It also gives an insight into the intellectual and cultural diversity of the Islamic world at that time.


Secondly, it is a remarkable example of critical thinking and comparative analysis in Islamic scholarship. It shows how al-Shahrastani applied reason and scripture to examine and evaluate different doctrines and beliefs without bias or prejudice. He did not resort to polemics or insults against those who disagreed with him. Rather he respected their views and tried to understand them from their own perspectives. He also acknowledged their positive aspects as well as their negative ones.


Thirdly, it is a relevant work for contemporary Muslims who are facing various challenges and questions regarding their faith and identity in a pluralistic world. It can help them to learn about their own heritage as well as other religions and philosophies. It can also help them to develop a critical mind and a tolerant attitude towards others who have different views or beliefs from them.


Conclusion




Kitab Al Milal Wa Al Nihal Pdf D is a non-polemical study of religious and philosophical sects in Islam by Muhammad al-Shahrastani. It is a valuable source of information, a remarkable example of critical thinking, and a relevant work for contemporary Muslims. It can help them to learn about their own heritage as well as other religions and philosophies. It can also help them to develop a critical mind and a tolerant attitude towards others who have different views or beliefs from them. 6c859133af


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